The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table can be used by
chemists in Periodic chemistry to observe chemical and physical
properties, characteristics, patterns and relationships between
over 100 elements in just one chart as detailed in the
Modern Periodic Table with
names of the elements. The Periodic Table is an
arrangement of the chemical elements arranged in order of
Atomic number, usually
in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and
hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns.
The Periodic Symbols
included on the Periodic Table. The Periodic Table is the
cornerstone of Periodic Chemistry.
What is Matter?
To understand Periodic Chemistry and the elements we need
to ask a basic question. What is Matter? Matter is everything
that takes up space and has weight – matter has volume and mass.
Matter is made up of tiny building blocks called Atoms…
Atoms and Compounds
What is the connection between Atoms, Periodic Chemistry
and the Chemical Elements? Chemistry is the science of chemical
elements and compounds and how these things work together. A chemical element contains only one type of
atom. If a
substance contains more than one type of atom, it is a compound.
Atoms - Protrons, Neutrons and Electrons
Atoms are composed of three kinds of smaller particles,
called protons, neutrons and electrons. These particles all have
different properties. Electrons are tiny, very light particles
that have a negative electrical charge. Protons are much larger
and heavier than electrons and have a positive charge.
Atoms must have equal numbers of protons and electrons. Neutrons
are large and heavy like protons; however neutrons have no
electrical charge. The nucleus is in the middle of the atom &
contains protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are made up
of even smaller particles called quarks.
Atoms are very small – at least a hundred times smaller
than the width of a human hair. The exact size of the atom
changes, depending on the element. Atoms are electrically
neutral, with a positively charged nucleus that binds one or
more electrons in motion around it. The purest type of atom is
called an element. We now understand the relevance to Periodic
States of Matter - Liquid, Solid or Gas
An element can be a gas, a liquid or a solid. These are
called States of Matter and
often referred to in Periodic Chemistry. The number of protons,
neutrons and electrons an atom has determines what element it
There are over 100 different chemical elements that are
known to modern chemistry and studied in Periodic Chemistry. 92
of these elements can be found in nature. 26 of these elements
can be found in the human body and the remaining elements are
man- made in laboratories. All of the elements are detailed in
the Periodic Table are studied in Periodic Chemistry.
Observing characteristics, properties, patterns and
relationships of elements
The Periodic Table is used in Periodic chemistry by
chemists and scientists to observe characteristics, properties,
patterns and relationships between over 100 elements in just one
chart. The Periodic Table is organized like a big grid. The
elements are placed in specific places because of the way
they look and act. An invaluable tool in Periodic chemistry.
In Periodic Chemistry the elements can be classified based on physical
states. At room temperature and pressure the Physical States are solids, gases
or liquids. Most elements are solids, only 11 are gases and 2 are liquids.
Changes, such as pressure and temperature, can alter the Physical State of an
element and can determine its relative density (mass or concentration),
viscosity (how well it flows) and malleability (how easy it is to bend).
Phase Changes - Melting, Freezing, Vaporization, Condensation
A phase change is the process by which the physical states of elements
are altered and carefully studied in Periodic chemistry. For example, when a
solid melts and becomes a liquid, it goes through a phase change. When a solid
becomes a liquid, it is called melting. When a solid becomes a gas, it is called
sublimation. When a liquid becomes a gas, it is called vaporization. When a gas
becomes a liquid, it is called condensation. When a liquid becomes a solid, it
is called freezing. All of these processes, called
Phase Changes, are studied in experiments in
Chemical FormulasO which
indicates that 2 atoms of Hydrogen combines with 1 atom of
Chemical reactions convert
one chemical substance into another. A
Chemical formula is a type of shorthand for representing the elements in a
example, the chemical formula for water is H2
Melting Point of Elements - Sublimation
The melting point is one of several physical properties by which elements
are identified in Periodic Chemistry. The melting point is defined as the
temperature in which it moves from its solid state to its liquid state. Some
substances do not have a melting point and will instead move from solid to
gaseous state. This is known as sublimation.
Freezing Point of Elements
The freezing point and the melting point are said to be the same. This is
because any increase in temperature will cause it to melt and any drop in
temperature will cause it to freeze.
Classifications of Elements into Groups
The elements displayed on the Periodic Table and studied
in Periodic Chemistry which consist of Gas, Liquid or Solid are
placed in Periodic Table Groups and these are classified as:
- Alkali Metals
- Alkaline Earth Metals
- Transition Metals
- Other Metals
Each of these classes, or groups, have common properties and
characteristics which are studied in Periodic Chemistry.
Properties of Elements
The Periodic Table conveys some items of Element
Classification at a glance. However, elements in the Periodic
Table are classified by many other factors including: Atomic
Mass, Atomic Radius, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Density, Mohs
Hardness, Conductivity, Electro-negativity and Energy.