The Non-metals that are are gases are Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen. The Non-metals that are are solids are Carbon, Phosphorus, Selenium and Sulfer. The properties of non-metals are not universal or as consistent as the metals.
What are Non-metals? Common Properties of Solid Non-metals
Elements described as the solid Non-metals have low melting points compared to the metals. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity, they are brittle solids, not ductile in their solid state - they cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets. They are usually dull and therefore show no metallic luster and they do not reflect light. They also have a low density.
Common properties of Solid Non-metals
The elements classed as solid Non-metals therefore have some of the following properties in common:
- Poor thermal conductors
- Poor electrical conductors
- Low Density
- Dull, Brittle solids
- Little or no metallic luster
- High ionization energies
- High electro-negativities
Elements classified as Non-metals
The 7 elements classified as "Non-metals" are located in Groups 14,15 and 16 of the Periodic Table. Solid Non-metals are not easily able to conduct electricity or heat and do not reflect light. Non-metallic elements are very brittle, and cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets. Non-metallic elements exist, at room temperature, in two of the three states of matter : gases (such as oxygen) and solids (such as carbon).
Non-metals List - Chemical Elements in the Periodic Table
The elements contained in the classification of Non-metals list are as follows: