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The Element Ruthenium

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Definition of the Ruthenium Element
A hard white acid-resistant metallic element that is found in Platinum ores. Ruthenium, together with rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGM). It is used to harden platinum and palladium for jewelry and in alloys for nonmagnetic wear-resistant instrument pivots and electrical contacts. Ruthenium does not tarnish at room temperatures, but oxidises in air at about 800C.

The metal is not attacked by hot or cold acids or aqua regia, but when Potassium chlorate is added to the solution, it oxidises explosively. The Atomic Number of this element is 44 and the chemcial symbol is Ru.

The Properties of the Ruthenium Element
Symbol of Element : Ru
Atomic Number : 44
Atomic Mass: 101.07 amu
Melting Point: 2250.0 C - 2523.15 K
Boiling Point: 3900.0 C - 4173.15 K
Number of Protons/Electrons: 44
Number of Neutrons: 57
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Density @ 293 K: 12.2 g/cm3
Color : white

Origin / Meaning of the name Ruthenium
Originates from the Latin word Ruthenia meaning Russia.

Periodic Table Group and Classification of the of the Ruthenium Element
Elements can be classified based on their physical states (States of Matter) e.g. gas, solid or liquid. This element is a solid. Ruthenium is classified as a "Transition Metal" which are located in Groups 3 - 12 of the Periodic Table. Elements classified as Transition Metals are generally described as ductile, malleable, and able to conduct electricity and heat. Nearly 75% of all the elements in the Periodic Table are classified as metals which are detailed in the List of Metals.

Facts about the History and the Discovery of the Ruthenium Element
Ruthenium was discovered by Karl Klaus  in 1844

Occurrence of the Ruthenium Element
Mined in North and South America, Canada and South Africa
Obtained from pentlandite and pyroxinite

Abundances of the element in different environments
% in Universe 410-7%
% in Sun 510-7%
% in Meteorites 0.000081%
% in Earth's Crust 9.910-8%
% in Oceans 710-11%
% in Humans N/A

Associated Uses of Ruthenium
Platinum alloys
Anti-cancer medicine
Solar energy technology

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