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The Element Nitrogen

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What is Nitrogen as on the Periodic Table? Definition of the Nitrogen Element
Nitrogen is a gas. It is a non-metallic element that constitutes nearly four-fifths of the air by volume, occurring as a colorless, odorless, almost inert diatomic gas, N2, in various minerals and in all proteins and  is a constituent of all living tissues.

Refer to Nitrogen Reaction for its reaction to Water, Oxygen & Acids. Nitrogen is an essential element for life, because it is a constituent of DNA and, as such, is part of the genetic code. It is used in a wide variety of important manufactures, including ammonia, nitric acid, TNT, and fertilizers. The Atomic Number of this element is 7 and the Element Symbol is N.

The Properties of the Nitrogen Element
Symbol of Element : N
Atomic Number : 7
Atomic Mass: 14.00674 amu
Melting Point: -209.9 C - 63.250008 K
Boiling Point: -195.8 C - 77.35 K
Number of Protons/Electrons: 7
Number of Neutrons: 7
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Density @ 293 K: 1.2506 g/cm3
Color : colorless  

What is Nitrogen? Origin / Meaning of the name Nitrogen
The name originates from the Latin nitrum and Greek nitron for "native soda" and genes for "forming" because of nitrogen's presence in Potassium nitrate, so called salpeter or nitre or native soda.

What is Nitrogen? Periodic Table Group and Classification of the Nitrogen Element
Elements can be classified based on their physical states (States of Matter) e.g. gas, solid or liquid. This element is a gas. Nitrogen is classified as an element in the 'Non-Metals' section which can be located in groups 14,15 and 16 of the Periodic Table. Non-metallic elements exist, at room temperature, in two of the three states of matter: gases (Oxygen, Hydrogen & Nitrogen) and solids (Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Selenium).

What is Nitrogen? Occurrence of the Nitrogen Element
Constitutes nearly four-fifths of the air by volume (78.1% by volume, 75.5% by weight)
Obtained from liquid air. Nitrogen is also an essential constituent of all living organisms; for example, the human body contains about 2.4% of nitrogen.

Abundances of the element in different environments
% in Universe 0.1%
% in Sun 0.1%
% in Meteorites 0.14%
% in Earth's Crust 0.002%
% in Oceans 0.00005%
% in Humans 2.6%

Medical Uses of Nitrogen - Health and Treatments
Interesting information is contained in the following list of Medical Uses of Nitrogen, Health and Treatments. Nitrogen Mustard is used as an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug.

  • Hodgkin's disease - cancer of lymph tissue in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow: Various symptoms according to the type of cancer: Nitrogen Mustard is used as an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug

  • Brain tumor: Nitrosoureas: A group of cancer drugs used to treat brain tumors.

A useful reference providing information regarding the medical uses of Nitrogen, associated health issues and disorders and treatments using Nitrogen preparations.

Associated Uses of Nitrogen
Used as a coolant for the immersion freezing
Gunpowder
Fertilizer
Rocket fuels
Medicine and Health Care
Liquid nitrogen
Nitrogen dioxide, oxide
Nitrogen generator / generators

What is Nitrogen? Facts about the Discovery and History of the Nitrogen Element
Nitrogen was discovered by the English chemist Rutherford in 1772 who determined that the air in which animals had breathed, even after removal of the exhaled carbon dioxide, was no longer able to burn a candle. A little later Scheele showed it to be a constituent of air, and Lavoisier gave it the name azote, signifying that it would not support life. The name nitrogen was afterwards given it because of its presence in saltpeter or niter. The term azote and symbol Az are still retained by the French chemists.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Scheele (9 December 1742 21 May 1786) was a German chemist who made a number of important chemical discoveries before many others but was rarely given the credit for his findings. For instance, although Scheele discovered oxygen Joseph Priestley published his findings first so was given the credit. Carl Scheele also identified molybdenum, Tungsten, Barium, Hydrogen and Chlorine before Humphry Davy and other scientists.

Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier was famous for his care in quantitative experiments, for demonstrating the true nature of combustion, for introducing system into the naming and grouping of chemical substances. Lavoisier was executed in 1794 during the French Revolution.

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