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Element Isotopes

Atom

"The Atom"

Artificial Isotopes

Artificial Isotopes can be created by putting elements into a nuclear reactor. Inside the reactor the element is bombarded with neutrons and occasionally a neutron will enter a nucleus to form an artificial isotope.

Element Isotopes - Chemical Properties of Isotopes
The chemical propertiesof an isotope such as their reactivity with water, flammability (the ability to catch on fire), toxicity (the ability to be poisonous), radioactivity (spontaneously emitting energy in the form of particles or waves by the disintegration of their atomic nucleus) and oxidation are the same

Element Isotopes - Neutrons and Isotopes
Isotopes have the same number of protons (and electrons) but different numbers of neutrons in the atom of an element. As a result of their having different numbers of neutrons, an element's isotopes differ in mass.

Element Isotopes - Interesting Facts and Information
Read the following interesting, basic, facts about Element Isotopes

  • Nearly all elements found in nature are mixtures of several different isotopes
  • They are also called Nuclides
  • Some are radioactive whilst others are not
  • Radioactivity describes a phenomenon in which certain materials are subject to a form of decay brought about by the emission of high-energy particles or radiation
  • Radioactive isotopes are much more common than are the stable type
  • There are over 1,000 unstable isotopes some of which exist in nature, but most of which have been created synthetically in laboratories
  • 20 elements including gold, fluorine, sodium, aluminum, and phosphorus have only 1 stable isotope
  • Elements with odd atomic numbers have only 1 or 2 stable isotopes
  • Elements with evenatomic numbers all have 3 or more stable isotopes (except for helium, beryllium, and carbon)

Element Isotopes - Physical Properties of Isotopes
The physical properties of an isotope, such as their masses, boiling points, and freezing points, are different. These differences allows scientists to separate one isotope from another. An important example of this process is the way they were used to purify uranium during WW2.

Element Isotopes - Radioactivity
Some isotopes are radioactive whilst others are not. Radioactivity describes a phenomenon in which certain materials are subject to a form of decay brought about by the emission of high-energy particles or radiation. A radioactive isotope is an isotope that spontaneously breaks apart, changing into some other isotope.

Element Isotopes - Stability - Stable and Unstable Facts and Info

  • The stability of each atom's nucleus depends on the ratio of protons to neutrons
  • The term 'stable' means not radioactive and these isotopes have never been observed to undergo radioactive decay
  • Many isotopes have a ratio of protons to neutrons that renders them unstable and, as a result, they are radioactive and are therefore described as radioisotopes or radionuclide
  • Radioactive isotopes are much more common than are stable isotopes
  • There are over 1,000 unstable isotopes some of which exist in nature, but most of which have been created synthetically in laboratories
  • 20 elements including gold, fluorine, sodium, aluminum, and phosphorus have only 1 stable isotope
  • Elements with odd atomic numbers have only 1 or 2 stable isotopes
  • Elements with evenatomic numbers all have 3 or more stable isotopes (except for helium, beryllium, and carbon)

Element Isotopes - Examples of Element Isotopes
Examples of are as follows:

  • Tin: 22 isotopes of tin are known. Ordinary tin is composed of 9 stable and 13 unstable have been recognized
  • Zinc: There are 21 known isotope of zinc, 5 stable and 16 unstable
  • Neon: Natural neon is a mix of 3 isotopes. 3 other unstable isotopes of neon are known
  • Xenon: Natural xenon consists of a mixture of 9 stable. An additional 20 unstable are known
  • Nickel: There are 14 known isotopes of nickel, 5 stable and 9 unstable

Element Isotopes - Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium - Half-Life
Only 3 element isotopes are considered significant enough to have names of their own: protium, deuterium, and tritium. All of these 3 are isotopes of hydrogen

  • Protium, is hydrogen in its most basic form with one proton and no neutrons
  • Deuterium is sometimes called "heavy hydrogen" and its nucleus, with 1 proton and 1 neutron, is called a deuteron
  • Because it is radioactive, tritium is often described in terms of half-life - the length of time it takes for a substance to diminish to one-half its initial amount. The half-life of tritium is 12.26 years
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