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The Element Hydrogen

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What is Hydrogen? - Definition of the Hydrogen Element
Hydrogen is a gas. It is a colorless, highly flammable gaseous element, the lightest of all gases and the most abundant element in the universe. Used in the production of synthetic ammonia and methanol, in petroleum refining, in the hydrogenation of organic materials, as a reducing atmosphere, in oxy-hydrogen torches, and in rocket fuels.

Hydrogen is one of the main compounds of water and of all organic matter, and its widely spread throughout the entire Universe. Refer to Hydrogen Reaction for its reaction to Water, Oxygen & Acids. The Atomic Number of this element is 1 and the Element Symbol is H. The hydrogen atom is formed by a nucleus with one unit of positive charge and one electron.

The Properties of the Hydrogen Element
Symbol of Element : H
Atomic Number : 1
Atomic Weight 1.0079
Melting Point: 259.14C
Boiling Point: 252.87C
Color : Colourless

What is Hydrogen? - Origin / Meaning of the name Hydrogen
The name Hydrogen is derived from the Greek word 'hydros' meaning "water" and gennen meaning to "generate" as it forms water when exposed to Oxygen creating H2
O.

What is Hydrogen? Periodic Table Group and Classification of the Hydrogen Element
Elements can be classified based on their physical states (States of Matter) e.g. gas, solid or liquid. This element is a gas. Hydrogen is classified as an element in the 'Non-Metals' section which can be located in groups 14,15 and 16 of the Periodic Table. Non-metallic elements exist, at room temperature, in two of the three states of matter: gases (Oxygen, Hydrogen & Nitrogen) and solids (Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Selenium). For additional facts and information refer to Hydrogen Properties.

What is Hydrogen? - The Discovery of Hydrogen
Hydrogen was discovered by Henry Cavendish in 1776 although Paracelsus around 1500, Robert Boyle, and Joseph Priestley had observed its production by reacting strong acids with metals. The element hydrogen was first clearly recognized as a distinct substance by the English investigator Cavendish, who in 1766 obtained it in a pure state, and showed it to be different from the other inflammable airs or gases which had long been known. Cavendish described Hydrogen as "inflammable air".

Facts about the History of the Discovery of Hydrogen Element
Antoine Lavoisier gave the element its name and proved that water was made of hydrogen and oxygen.

Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier was famous for his care in quantitative experiments, for demonstrating the true nature of combustion and for introducing a system into the naming and grouping of chemical substances in 1787. Lavoisier was executed in 1794 during the French Revolution.

What is Hydrogen? - Occurrence of the Hydrogen Element

  • Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe
  • Makes up to 75% of normal matter by mass and over 90% by number of atoms
  • Found in abundance in stars and giant gas planets
  • Fourteen and a half times lighter than air
  • The most common source for this element on earth is water which is composed two parts hydrogen to one part oxygen (H2O)

Abundance of Hydrogen
% in Universe 75%
% in Sun 75%
% in Meteorites 2.4%
% in Earth's Crust 0.15%
% in Oceans 11%
% in Humans 10%

Associated Uses of Hydrogen
Manufacture of Ammonia to produce fertilizers
Hydrogen balloons only used for lifting weather instruments
Rocket Fuel
Hydrogen Fuel Upgrading Fossil fuels
Production of methanol and hydrochloric acid
Hydrogen Bomb from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes

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