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The Element Hafnium

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"The Atom"

Definition of the Hafnium Element
A brilliant, silvery, metallic element separated from ores of zirconium and used in nuclear reactor control rods, as a getter for Oxygen and Nitrogen, and in the manufacture of Tungsten filaments. The metal is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except hydrofluoric acid. Hafnium resists corrosion due to formation of a tough, impenetrable oxide film on its surface. The Atomic Number of this element is 72 and the Element Symbol is Hf.

The Properties of the Hafnium Element
Symbol of Element : Hf
Atomic Number : 72
Atomic Mass: 178.49 amu
Melting Point: 2150.0 C - 2423.15 K
Boiling Point: 5400.0 C - 5673.15 K
Number of Protons/Electrons: 72
Number of Neutrons : 106
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Density @ 293 K: 13.2 g/cm3
Color : silvery

Origin / Meaning of the name Hafnium
The word  Hafnium originates from the Latin Hafnia for "Copenhagen".

Definition of the Hafnium Element
A brilliant, silvery, metallic element separated from ores of zirconium and used in nuclear reactor control rods, as a getter for Oxygen and Nitrogen, and in the manufacture of Tungsten filaments. The metal is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except hydrofluoric acid. Hafnium resists corrosion due to formation of a tough, impenetrable oxide film on its surface. The Atomic Number of this element is 72 and the Element Symbol is Hf.

Origin / Meaning of the name Hafnium
The word  Hafnium originates from the Latin Hafnia for "Copenhagen".

Periodic Table Group and Classification of the of the Hafnium Element
Elements can be classified based on their physical states (States of Matter) e.g. gas, solid or liquid. This element is a solid. Hafnium is classified as a "Transition Metal" which are located in Groups 3 - 12 of the Periodic Table. Elements classified as Transition Metals are generally described as ductile, malleable, and able to conduct electricity and heat. Nearly 75% of all the elements in the Periodic Table are classified as metals which are detailed in the List of Metals.

Facts about the History and the Discovery of the Hafnium Element
Hafnium was discovered by Dirk Coster and Georg von Hevesy in 1923 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Found in zircon through X-ray spectroscope analysis in Norway.  First separated from zirconium through re-crystallization of double ammonium or Potassium fluorides by Jantzen and von Hevesey. Metallic Hafnium was first prepared by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik deBoer. Associated with zirconium by using the Bohr theory.

Occurrence of the Hafnium Element
Does not exist as a free element in nature
Obtained from zircon
Found combined in natural zirconium compounds and minerals such as alvite

Abundances of the element in different environments
% in Universe 710-8%
% in Sun 110-7%
% in Meteorites 0.000017%
% in Earth's Crust 0.00033%
% in Oceans 810-10%
% in Humans N/A

Associated Uses of Hafnium
Nuclear reactors
Hafnium reactor
The Hafnium bomb
Used in incandescent lamps
Tungsten filaments

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