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The Element Germanium


"The Atom"

Definition of the Germanium Element
A brittle, crystalline, gray-white metalloid element, widely used as a semiconductor, as an alloying agent and catalyst, and in certain optical glasses. It is similar in chemical and physical properties to Silicon. Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid. The Atomic Number of this element is 32 and the Element Symbol is Ge.

The Properties of the Germanium Element
Symbol of Element : Ge
Atomic Number : 32
Atomic Mass: 72.61 amu
Melting Point: 937.4 C - 1210.55 K
Boiling Point: 2830.0 C - 3103.15 K
Number of Protons/Electrons : 32
Number of Neutrons: 41
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 5.323 g/cm3
Color : gray-white

Origin / Meaning of the name Germanium
The name originates from the the Latin word Germania meaning 'Germany' where it was discovered and isolated by the German chemist, Clemens-Alexander Winkler.

Periodic Table Group and Classification of the of the Germanium Element
Elements can be classified based on their physical states (States of Matter) e.g. gas, solid or liquid. This element is a solid. Germanium is classified as a "Metalloid" element and is located in Groups 13, 14,15, 16 and 17 of the Periodic Table. An element classified as one of the Metalloids has the properties of both metals and Non-Metals. Some are semi-conductors and can carry an electrical charge making them useful in calculators and computers.

Facts about the Discovery and History of the Germanium Element
Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in Germany in 1886. Mendeleev called it "ekasilicon"

History of the Periodic Table
Check out the brief History of the Periodic Table which details dates and the names of famous scientists and chemists who contributed to the development of the Periodic Table.

Occurrence of the Germanium Element
Found in argyrodite (sulfide of germanium and silver), coal; germanite and Zincores

Abundances of the element in different environments
% in Universe 0.00002%
% in Sun 0.00002%
% in Meteorites 0.0021%
% in Earth's Crust 0.00014%
% in Oceans 610-9%
% in Humans N/A

Associated Uses of Germanium
Electric guitar amplifiers
An alloying agent
Infra-red spectroscopes and optical equipment
Camera and microscope lenses

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