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The Element Cadmium

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Definition of the Cadmium Element
A soft, bluish-white metallic element occurring primarily in Zinc, Copper, and Lead ores, that is easily cut with a knife and is used in low-friction, fatigue-resistant alloys, solders, dental amalgams, Nickel-cadmium storage batteries, nuclear reactor shields, and in rustproof electroplating. Cadmium is soluble in acids but not in alkalis. It is similar in many respects to zinc. Cadmium and its salts are poisonous. The Atomic Number of this element is 48 and the Element Symbol is Cd.

The Properties of the Cadmium Element
Symbol of Element : Cd
Atomic Number : 48
Atomic Mass: 112.411 amu
Melting Point: 320.9 C - 594.05 K
Boiling Point: 765.0 C - 1038.15 K
Number of Protons/Electrons: 48
Number of Neutrons : 64
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Density @ 293 K: 8.65 g/cm3
Color : bluish-white

What is Cadmium? Origin / Meaning of the name Cadmium
The name originates from the Greek word kadmeia  and from the Latin word cadmia meaning "calamine". Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc. The name calamine was derived from the Belgian town of Kelmis, whose French name is "La Calamine", which is home to a zinc mine.

What is Cadmium? Periodic Table Group and Classification of the Cadmium Element
Elements can be classified based on their physical states (States of Matter) e.g. gas, solid or liquid. This element is a solid. Cadmium is classified as a "Transition Metal" which are located in Groups 3 - 12 of the Periodic Table. Elements classified as Transition Metals are generally described as ductile, malleable, and able to conduct electricity and heat. Nearly 75% of all the elements in the Periodic Table are classified as metals which are detailed in the List of Metals.

Facts about the Discovery and History of the Cadmium Element
Cadmium was discovered in Germany by Fredrich Stromeyer  in 1817

What is Cadmium? Occurrence of the Cadmium Element
Cadmium occurs in small quantities in some zinc ores. In the course of the metallurgy of zinc the cadmium compounds undergo chemical changes quite similar to those of the zinc compounds, and the cadmium distills along with the zinc. Being more volatile, it comes over with the first of the zinc and is prepared from the first portions of the distillate by special methods of purification. The element very closely resembles zinc in most respects. Some of its alloys are characterized by having low melting points.

Obtained from zinc refining, mining, smelting
Greenockite is the only cadmium mineral of importance and is nearly always associated with sphalerite

Abundances of the element in different environments
% in Universe 210-7%
% in Sun 610-7%
% in Meteorites 0.000044%
% in Earth's Crust 0.000015%
% in Oceans 510-9%
% in Humans 0.00007%

Associated Uses of Cadmium
Batteries - Nickel Cadmium
Pigments
Coatings and platings
Barrier to control nuclear fission
Televisions
Nickel cadmium batteries

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